1 Now it came to pass in the days ofAlso called Darius, who was now the favourite monarch and had the government of the Medes, Persians and Chaldeans. Some think he was Darius Hystaspis also called Artaxerxes.Ahasuerus, (this [is] Ahasuerus which reigned, from India even unto Ethiopia, [over] an(Dan_6:1) makes mention of only 120 leaving out the number that are imperfect as the scripture uses in various places.hundred and seven and twenty provinces:)The Argument – Because of the variety of names, by which they used to call their kings, and the number of years in which the Hebrews and the Greeks vary, various authors write concerning that Ahasuerus but is seems in (Dan_6:1, Dan_9:1) that he was Darius king of the Medes and son of Astyages also called Ahasuerus which was a name of honour and signified great and chief as chief head. In this is declared the great mercies of God toward his church: who never fails them in their greatest dangers, but when all hope of worldly help fades, he stirs up some, by whom he sends comfort and deliverance. In this also is described the ambition, pride and cruelty of the wicked when they come to honour and their sudden fall when they are at their highest and how God preserves and prefers them who are zealous of his glory and have a care and love for their brethren.
2 [That] in those days, when the king AhasuerusThat is, had rest and quietness.sat on the throne of his kingdom, which [was] in Shushan the palace,
3 In the third yeere of his reigne, he made a feast vnto all his princes and his seruants, euen the power of Persia and Media, and to the captaines and gouernours of the prouinces which were before him,
4 That he might shewe the riches & glorie of his kingdome, and the honour of his great maiestie many dayes, euen an hundreth and foure score dayes.
5 And when these dayes were expired, the King made a feast to all the people that were founde in the palace of Shushan, both vnto great and small, seuen dayes, in the court of the garden of the Kings palace,
6 [Where were] white, green, and blue, [hangings], fastened with cords of fine linen and purple to silver rings and pillars of marble: theWhich they used in those countries instead of tables.beds [were of] gold and silver, upon a pavement of red, and blue, and white, and black, marble.
7 And they gave [them] drink in vessels of gold, (the vessels being diverse one from another,) and royal wine in abundance, according to theAs was befitting for so magnificent a king.state of the king.
8 And the drinking [was] according to the law; none didNo one was forced to drink more than it pleased him.compel: for so the king had appointed to all the officers of his house, that they should do according to every man's pleasure.
9 The Queene Vashti made a feast also for the women in the royall house of King Ahashuerosh.
10 On theWhich was the last day of the feast that the king made for the people as in (Est_1:5).seventh day, when the heart of the king was merry with wine, he commanded Mehuman, Biztha, Harbona, Bigtha, and Abagtha, Zethar, and Carcas, the seven chamberlains that served in the presence of Ahasuerus the king,
11 To bring Queene Vashti before the King with the crowne royall, that he might shewe the people and the princes her beautie: for shee was fayre to looke vpon.
12 But the Queene Vashti refused to come at the Kings worde, which he had giuen in charge to the eunuches: therefore the King was very angry, and his wrath kindled in him.
13 Then the king said to the wise men,Who had experience in things as they had learned by diligent marking in continuance of time.which knew the times, (for so [was] the king's manner toward all that knew law and judgment:
14 And the next unto him [was] Carshena, Shethar, Admatha, Tarshish, Meres, Marsena, [and] Memucan, the seven princes of Persia and Media, which saw theWho were his chief counsellors that always had access to him.king's face, [and] which sat the first in the kingdom;)
15 What shal we do vnto the Queene Vashti according to the law, because she did not according to the worde of the King Ahashuerosh by the commission of the eunuches?
16 And Memucan answered before the king and the princes, Vashti the queen hath not doneBy her disobedience she has given an example to all women to do the same to their husbands.wrong to the king only, but also to all the princes, and to all the people that [are] in all the provinces of the king Ahasuerus.
17 For [this]That is, her disobedience.deed of the queen shall come abroad unto all women, so that they shall despise their husbands in their eyes, when it shall be reported, The king Ahasuerus commanded Vashti the queen to be brought in before him, but she came not.
18 [Likewise] shall theMeaning, that they would take the first opportunity to do the same and the rest of the women would also do the same.ladies of Persia and Media say this day unto all the king's princes, which have heard of the deed of the queen. Thus [shall there arise] too much contempt and wrath.
19 If it please the king, let there go a royal commandment from him, and let it be written among the laws of the Persians and the Medes, that it be not altered, That Vashti comeLet her be divorced and another made queen.no more before king Ahasuerus; and let the king give her royal estate unto another that is better than she.
20 And when the king's decree which he shall make shall be published throughout all his empire, (for it isFor he had under him a hundred and twenty-seven countries.great,) all the wives shall give to their husbands honour, both to great and small.
21 And this saying pleased the King and the princes, and the King did according to the worde of Memucan.
22 For he sent letters into all the king's provinces, into every province according to the writing thereof, and to every people after their language, that every man shouldThat is, that the wife should be subject to the husband and at his commandment.bear rule in his own house, and that [it] should be published according to the language of every people.